Tovmas Nazarbekian Թովմաս Նազարբեկյան (Foma I. Nazarbekov) (Tiflis 1855 – Tiflis 1931) Born to a wealthy Russianized noble family of Armenian descent in Tiflis. Attended the military academy in Moscow. Participated in the Russo–Turkish war of 1877–8, and in the Russo–Japanese war of 1904–5, in which he was decorated with the Cross and the Sabre of St George. Resigned his commission when tsarist policy turned against the Armenians; but returned to the army when Russia abandoned her anti-Armenian stance. Appointed a general on the Caucasian front in 1914; scored great victory over Khalil Pasha at Diliman (not mentioned in Allen and Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields). Occupied Bitlis. Commissioned to lead the Armenian corps, December 1917. Ordered by Chkhenkeli to abandon Kars, 23–4 April 1918. Driven back to Dilidjan during the battle of Sardarabad. Commander-in-chief of Armenian army after the republic’s independence; found establishment of discipline impossible, with abolition of death penalty (May 1917). Held that this led to demoralisation which lost Kars. Arrested in January 1921 after the Sovietisation of Armenia, along with 1,200 other officers. Amnestied in May 1921. Settled in Tiflis; lived quietly for the last ten years of his life.